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As in the case of Enigma, the rim of each wheel was marked with numbers, visible to the operator through a window, and somewhat like the numbers on the rotating parts of a combination lock.

From October 1942 the operating procedure was this. this combination was called the setting for that particular message.

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Once all the combinations in a QEP book had been used it was replaced by a new one. In short, adding two sames produces dot, and adding a mixed pair produces cross.

The Tunny machine encrypted each letter of the message by adding another letter to it. Each letter of the ciphertext was produced by adding a letter from the key-stream to the corresponding letter of the plaintext. (Computer literati will recognise Tunny addition as boolean XOR.) For example, if the first letter of the plaintext happens to be M, and the first letter of the key-stream happens to be N, then the first letter of the ciphertext is T: adding M (••).

The Tunny machine was manufactured by the German Lorenz company.

The first model bore the designation SZ40, ‘SZ’ standing for ‘Schlüsselzusatz’ (‘cipher attachment’).

(The process of adding letters together is explained in the next paragraph.) The internal mechanism of the Tunny machine produced its own stream of letters, known at B. The Tunny machine adds letters by adding the individual dots and crosses that compose them. The German engineers selected these rules for dot-and-cross addition so that the following is always true (no matter which letters, or other keyboard characters, are involved): adding one letter (or other character) to another and then adding it again a second time leaves you where you started.

The rules that the makers of the machine selected for dot-and-cross addition are simple. In symbols, (x y) x = y, for every pair of keyboard characters x and y.Introduction Colossus, the first large-scale electronic computer, was used against the German system of teleprinter encryption known at Bletchley Park as ‘Tunny’.Technologically more sophisticated than Enigma, Tunny carried the highest grade of intelligence.A radio operator then transmitted the ciphertext in the form of Morse code.Morse code was not used with Tunny: the output of the Tunny machine, encrypted teleprinter code, went directly to air.(The complete teleprinter alphabet is shown in Appendix 1: The teleprinter alphabet.) When a message in teleprinter code is placed on paper tape, each letter (or other keyboard character) takes the form of a pattern of holes punched across the width of the tape. The first Tunny radio link, between Berlin and Athens/Salonika, went into operation on an experimental basis in June 1941. The two central exchanges for Tunny traffic were Strausberg near Berlin for the Western links, and Königsberg for the Eastern links into Russia.

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