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Although individual acts of violence against Serbs occurred in all three places to varying degrees, such abuse was by no means widespread nor did it amount to "genocide," a claim the Serbian government has asserted.1 Rather, the exaggeration and misrepresentation of human rights abuses against Serbs was used by Milo_evi?

Many of the abuses in the past two years have been a result of the Albanians' refusal to accept direct Serbian rule and the use of repressive measures by Serbian authorities to force Albanian submission to Belgrade's rule.4Since the government of Slobodan Milo_evi?

assumed direct control of Kosovo's governance and security in 1990, the human rights situation has worsened dramatically.

Serbian authorities in Kosovo are responsible for the torture and killing of ethnic Albanians in detention.

Adequate investigation, prosecution or punishment of those responsible for the murder, torture or mistreatment of Albanians in Kosovo is rarely undertaken.

This report documents violations investigated by Helsinki Watch during missions to Kosovo and Serbia proper in May, June and December 1991.

Participants in those missions included Jonathan Fanton, chair of Helsinki Watch, Elliot Schrage, a New York attorney, and Ivana Nizich, Research Associate to Helsinki Watch.Most of the human rights violations being committed in both conflicts stem from the use of force and terror by Serbian authorities to assert control over territory and to expel or marginalize the non-Serbian population.These tactics, which now form a familiar pattern, were first used by Serbian authorities in Kosovo, a formerly autonomous province in southern Serbia in which ethnic Albanians comprise approximately 90 percent of the population.Since 1990, Serbian authorities in Belgrade have directly administered Kosovo, systematically violating the human rights of ethnic Albanians in the province.Yet little attention was paid by the international community.Milosevic's dogmatic communism gave way to strident nationalism.

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