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Men and women in non-traditional gendered occupations, from top left to bottom right, or top to bottom (mobile): a male midwife in Oslo, Norway; women being sworn into the Afghan National Police; a woman doing construction work in the Solomon Islands; a male kindergarten teacher in Colorado Springs, U. playing the ukulele although there are exceptions and variations.

In the 1940s, Albert Ellis studied eighty-four cases of mixed births and concluded that 'while the power of the human sex drive may possibly be largely dependent on physiological factors...

the direction of this drive does not seem to be directly dependent on constitutional element'.

The term gender role was first coined by John Money in 1955, during the course of his study of intersex individuals, to describe the manners in which these individuals expressed their status as a male or female in a situation where no clear biological assignment existed.

Debate continues as to what extent gender and gender roles are socially constructed (i.e.

Most children learn to categorize themselves by gender by the age of three.

From birth, in the course of gender socialization, children learn gender stereotypes and roles from their parents and environment.

Due to the prevailing perception of men as primarily breadwinners, they are seldom afforded the benefit of paternity leave.

However, for some individuals gender roles may provide a positive effect, and their absence may prove difficult: while gender roles may be used as deleterious gender stereotypes, they can offer a clear avenue to verify and structure socially acceptable behavior.

The point at which these internalized gender identities become externalized into a set of expectations is the genesis of a gender role.

Women throughout the world, in many ways, do not enjoy full freedom and protection under the law (see women's rights).

There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed.

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