Dating hohokam canals

The Hopi located their villages on mesas for defensive purposes but land surrounding the mesas was also utilized by clans, families, medicinal and religious purposes.While the majority of its land was appropriated by the federal government, they retained 9% of their original holdings which is today the Hopi Reservation.

Guale – Guale was an historic Native American chiefdom of Mississippian culture peoples located along the coast of present-day Georgia and the Sea Islands.

Spanish Florida established its Roman Catholic missionary system in the chiefdom in the late 16th century.

The Gros Ventre were kinfolk of the Arapaho, and called themselves A’aninin, the White Clay People.

The Gros Ventre were probably original residents of Minnesota and North Dakota, but, as European expansion pushed them westward, the tribe migrated to Montana, where most of their descendants still live today.

Encompassing some 1.6 million acres, the headquarters is at Kykotsmovi, Arizona. Houma – Originally the Houma were from east central Mississippi and were of the Chakchiuma.

By 1682 the Houma had separated from the Chakchiuma and were living a few miles inland from the east bank of the Mississippi River just below the present border between Mississippi and Louisiana.

This made it easy to place responsibility for the fate of the Illini on their native enemies, or perhaps even nature itself.

The story of the Illini’s decline is a chilling indication of how the European presence, regardless of purpose or intention, unleashed destructive forces upon North America’s native peoples which reached far beyond the immediate areas of their colonization.

Hidatsa villages, with circular earth lodges, were enclosed by an earthen wall.

Their survival depending upon the cultivation of corn and an annual organized buffalo hunt.

For the most part, the blame for this could not be placed on a war with the Europeans or the Illini refusal to adapt themselves to a changing situation.

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